How to start a cooking oil factory?
It is a good choice for many young people to open a small cooking oil manufacturing unit in their hometown. However, many people do not understand the process of cooking oil and do not know how to set up equipment. The Zhaofang Grain and Oil Mechanical Equipment Factory of Henan Oil Mechanical Equipment Company take sesame oil processing as an example and will briefly introduce the processing flow of edible oil and the necessary machinery and equipment.
Sesame oil production process and equipment.
The production process is elaborated in the following.
Sesame → clean → heating → oil extraction → filtration → refining → sesame oil
1. Clean sesame
This process is mainly to clean iron scraps, stones and other sundries in the raw sesame seeds, to continue the subsequent process of oil extraction. There are cleaning equipment to complete the feeding, screening, de-stone removal, magnetic separation and other processes of raw materials. The application of sesame cleaning equipment can reduce damage to subsequent machines.
Common cleaning equipment includes a magnetic separator, cleaning sieve and stone removal machine.
2. Heat sesame
After sesame seeds are cleaned, it needs to be heated. The temperature of the water in the sesame is adjusted by heating to meet the temperature of technical requirements in the sesame oil.
Common equipment is a hot air frying machine.
3. Press sesame oil
The heated sesame is subjected to hydraulic or mechanical pressure to extrude oil from oil crops such as rapeseed, peanuts, sesame, sunflower seeds, cottonseed, palm kernel, flaxseed, and cocoa beans.
Common equipments are hydraulic oil press and screw press.
4. Filter sesame oil
The sesame oil that has just come out of the hydraulic oil press is not edible. It needs to be filtered and removed the sesame residue. This kind of preliminary oil product becomes raw oil.
Common equipments are sesame oil filter and plate and frame filter.
5. Refine sesame oil
There is no problem to eat the initial refining of the oil at home, but it can not be sold in the market. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the secondary refining of raw oil. At present, in the international and domestic the five-discontinued oil refining process is widely used, which includes hydration degumming, alkali deacidification, adsorption decolorization, winter dewaxing, and high-temperature deodorization.
Common equipments are full continuous refining equipment and intermittent refining equipment.
Sesame oil does not require strict purification and refining. There are rare vegetable oils that can be eaten without refining. The raw oil of sesame obtained by the pressing method often contains suspended cerium particles that can be removed by precipitation, separation or filtration. The filter sesame oil produced by the leaching process also contains impurities such as phospholipids, resins, free fatty acids, and colored substances. Therefore the oil often requires refining processes, such as degumming, neutralization, decolorization, winterization, and deodorization.
1. Hydration degumming is the use of hydrophilicity of peptizing impurities such as phospholipids. After adding a quantity of water or electrolyte dilute solution to the oil and stirring, the peptized impurities in the raw oil will swell, condense and separate. In the hydration degumming process, the substances that can be coagulated and precipitated are mainly phospholipids, along with phospholipid combine with proteins, mucus and trace metal ions.
2. Alkali refining deacidification will be explained. All kinds of non-refined oils contain free fatty acids, and the process of removing free fatty acids is called deacidification. The methods of deacidification include alkali refining, distillation, solvent extraction, and esterification. Alkali refining and steam distillation are widely used in industrial production. ( physical refining).
3. Decolorization of oil is to use some substances that have strong adsorption on pigments (such as bleaching soil, activated clay, activated carbon, etc.) to adsorb pigments and other impurities in oils under conditions and achieve the purpose of discoloration. The oil treated by the adsorbent not only achieves the purpose of improving the oil color and removing the colloid, but also effectively removes some trace metal ions in the oil and some substances that can cause poisoning of the hydrogenation catalyst, and provides good conditions thereby further refining the grease. (Hydrogenation, deodorization)
4. Deodorization of oil is a process of steam distillation under high temperature and high vacuum conditions by utilizing the difference between the odorous substance in the oil and the volatilization of the triglyceride. The principle of steam distillation (also known as stripping) deodorization is that the surface between vapor and liquid in the oil with odor component and the water vapor is saturated by the volatile odor component. It flows out by partial pressure to achieve the purpose of deodorization.
What is Aflatoxin?
Aflatoxin (AF) was first discovered in 1960. It is a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. More than 12 species have been isolated and identified, and aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, M2, B2a, G2a, BM2a, GM2a are common. It is also the most potent and teratogenic toxin in mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 is classified as a grade 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Aflatoxin contamination is widespread worldwide. The contamination can occur in the soil and after harvest time. Aflatoxins are most susceptible to contamination of peanuts, corn, cottonseed, eggs, meat, milk, and dairy products in warm and humid climates. Wheat, sorghum and sweet potatoes, are less contaminated with aflatoxin. The pollution rate of aflatoxin in China's grain and feed is very high, which endangers people’s health.
Chemical properties in Aflatoxin B1
Aflatoxin is insoluble in water, hexane, ether and petroleum ether and is easily soluble in organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetonitrile, and dimethylformamide. The maximum solubility in water is less than 10 mg/kg. It is generally stable in a neutral solution, but it is slightly decomposed in a solution of strong acidic. If it is decomposed in a strong base aflatoxin B1 solution of pH 9-10 quickly, it will decompose into almost non-toxic salt, destroyed by alkali or strong oxidant easily. Its pure product is a colorless crystal, high-temperature resistance, decomposition temperature at 268°C. Ultraviolet light is destructive to low aflatoxin of concentration, but its internal structure cannot be changed. When the conditions of the external reaction are removed, it can be restored to its original state. Therefore, the effect of ultraviolet light on it is reversible. Under natural conditions, aflatoxin-contaminated food is very stable. Rice that is heavily contaminated with aflatoxin B1 can be stored in normal conditions for up to 20 years without decomposition at indoor temperature. Therefore, it is difficult to destroy aflatoxin by normal methods.
The toxic mechanism in Aflatoxin B1
The absorption and excretion of aflatoxin in the body are fast. If it is not a continuous intake in AFB1 along with food with a relatively low amount. About 10 days later, it will be excreted by various excretory systems. If the amount of intake is too large, it will cause AFB1 acute poisoning and damage to the liver. AFB1 is currently known to have strong triad material in mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. AFB1 mainly harms the liver and kidney in humans and animals. Symptoms of poisoning mainly reflect the various manifestation of hepatocyte lesions in liver necrosis and liver cancer. AFB1 is absorbed and transformed into various gastrointestinal systems in the body and converted into various homologs of AFB1, such as AFM1, AFM2, AFP1, and AFQ under various reactions such as demethylation, epoxidation, and hydroxylation. These transformed substances can bind to various proteins or enzymes in the body, affect or change the nature of the egg, interfere with the normal protein mechanism to cause cancer of the cells. Besides, AFB1 and it’s transformed AFM1 also cause great harm to the nucleic acid substances in the body, which can affect and change the DNA and RNA synthesis in the body to achieve the normal activities of changing the normal inheritance in the body. When AFB1 enters the body, AFB1-N7-guanine conjugate is formed and the AFB1-lysine conjugate remained in the blood. These two substances are the main component of AFB1 in vivo to produce toxicity. The area with the high incidence in aflatoxin is coincidence with the area in high incidence in various liver cancers, which proves that AFB1 is of high carcinogenicity.
Carcinogenesis in Aflatoxin B1
AFB1 is one of the strongest carcinogenic chemicals at present, and the range of it’s carcinogenic is particularly wide, such as in poultry, livestock, and various primates. It can induce a variety of cancers such as cancer in the liver, kidney, lacrimal adenocarcinoma, rectal, small intestine and other parts and can also induce teratogenic. Its molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis mainly focuses on the activation of oncogenes and the inactivation of suppressing in tumor genes. AFB1 induces gene mutation of ras cancer in liver tissue. The gene mutation increases P21 to induce the incidence of liver cancer. Aflatoxins can also cause mutations in the P53 gene. The mutant P53 gene can lose its suppressor in tumor activity and acquire the properties of oncogenes and lead to the formation of tumors. According to research, P53 mutations are more common in some areas with high exposure of aflatoxin in China and southern Africa, while it is rarely found in North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Japan. It suggests that humans are a genetic susceptibility to carcinogenic aflatoxins in the environment.
The harm of excessive aflatoxin to animals.
Aflatoxin has effects on inducing mutation and inhibiting immunity and carcinogenesis. The target organ for aflatoxin mainly influences in the liver. Animal poisoning is manifested by systemic hemorrhage, digestive dysfunction, and nervous system disorders. Animal acute poisoning manifests as loss of appetite, movement disorders, cessation of excretion, hepatitis, jaundice, liver congestion, hemorrhage, swelling, degeneration and necrosis, accompanying severe vascular, central nervous system damage. And animals will even death within hours to days after acute poisoning. The early symptoms of chronic poisoning are poor appetite, weight loss, decreased performance, decreased carcass, and eggshell quality, and later jaundice, fatty liver, liver damage and inhibition of animal immune function and carcinogenesis.
It can reduce growth and development in animals and will reduce and destroy nutrients in raw materials or feed. If the content of toxin is too large, the feed that intakes from animals will also decrease. Aflatoxins in the body can reduce the activity of certain pancreatic enzymes, affect the synthesis of enzymes and certain hormones and cause absorption, metabolism disorders, indigestion, loss of appetite, anemia, weight loss. Aflatoxins cause an increase in lipid levels in the liver and serum and cause a decrease in total protein, cholesterol and urea nitrogen in the blood.
It affects immune function. All animals use various conditions to protect themselves from various bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and other external factors to ensure their health. This defensive ability requires the animal body having a complete and effective immune system to achieve. AFB1 affects humoral and cellular immunity, lowers serum protein and antibody levels, attenuates phagocytic cells, reduces body resistance to pathogenic microorganisms and reduces immunity.
It has an impact on reproduction ability in animals. The reproductive function of poultry is significantly affected by aflatoxin when the feed of poultry is contaminated by aflatoxin. The reproductive epithelium of male testis has obvious lesions, shrink in the testicles and become lighter and less to decreased rate of fertility and fertilization. When the content of AFB1 in the diet is 1 mg/kg, the weight of the egg is small and the rate of fertilization and hatching in the egg are affected. It will lead to the steatosis of the reproductive organs accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration.
Pigs are sensitive to mycotoxins, especially breastfeeding or suckling piglets. In general, mycotoxins reduce feed intake, performance, and immune function when levels of mycotoxins are relatively low. 20-200 ppb of aflatoxin B1 can cause a decrease in feed intake and production capacity but can be offset by increasing the concentration of special dietary nutrients such as lysine or methionine. Severe aflatoxin poisoning (1000-5000 ppb) can occur acute effects, including effects on breathing. It has been reported that when the content of aflatoxin in the feed is 2.0 mg/kg, the weight of pig can be reduced from 33.7 kg to 29.7 kg in the control group. Aflatoxin can be transferred to the fetus through the placental barrier, causing fetal malformations and resulting in reduced litter size, weak births, stillbirths, and mummies. Abortion occurs in individual females with acute poisoning and aflatoxin poisoning in boar shows a decrease in libido.
Aflatoxins affect all breeds of poultry, leading to death at high levels of intake and harmfulness at low levels of intake. Young birds, especially ducklings and turkeys, are very sensitive to aflatoxin. In general, aflatoxins in the diets of the poultry of growing should not exceed 20 ppb. However, feeding a diet in poultry below 20 ppb still reduces the resistance to diseases and their ability to resist stress. Laying hens can tolerate higher levels of aflatoxin, but not more than 50 ppb. AFB1 mainly acts on the immune system, reducing the anti-stress ability to lay hens, reducing egg weight, producing not hard eggshells, and decreasing egg production. Feeding broilers with 2.0 mg/kg aflatoxin increased the mortality of broiler by 22.5%. Aflatoxin can destroy the sexual function of the cock, causing the testicle to shrink. And the seminiferous tubules are poorly developed, which hinders the production of semen. It has been found that egg yolks consumed by humans have metabolites of aflatoxin.
Although beef cattle are more tolerant of aflatoxins than pigs and poultry, aflatoxins have a great impact on them. Feeding beef with aflatoxin-contaminated feed can result in a decrease in growth rate and a higher ratio of meat in the feed. If the adult cattle ingest with high levels of aflatoxin, it can cause damage to their liver and inhibit immune function. In some cases, it can cause severe rectal fistula and rectal prolapse in calves. Acute poisoning in cattle can even lead to death.
Feeding aflatoxin-contaminated feed to the cow not only reduces their production capacity and physical fitness but also directly harms human health by milk with a metabolite, aflatoxin M1.
The harm of excessive aflatoxin to human health.
Aflatoxins are recognized as substances to cause liver cancer, of which AFB1 is the most carcinogenic kind. Consumption of foods containing low levels of aflatoxin in the long-term will damage the liver. The manifestation of acute aflatoxin poisoning has recently been reported in third world countries. The acute aflatoxin poisoning is characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, pulmonary edema, convulsions, coma, cerebral edema, liver, kidney-shaped veins, and excessive heart fat and even death. In 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) listed aflatoxin B1 as one of the human carcinogens. And it was confirmed that carcinogens by has positive effects on dietary aflatoxins and hepatocellular carcinoma (LCC) in many Asian and African epidemiologists. Besides, aflatoxin carcinogenesis to humans may be associated with age, gender, nutritional status, and hepatitis or parasitic infections. Shank et al. (1972) investigated commercially available foods and cooked foods (meal) in a household in Thailand and calculated the average daily intake of aflatoxin per person. It was found that the high content of aflatoxin was consistent with the regional distribution in a high incidence of liver cancer. Corn and homemade peanut butter Philippine are heavily polluted aflatoxin. And the incidence of liver cancer in the area with staple food in corn or homemade peanut butter is more than 7 times than that of other areas. After eating peanut butter, the metabolism of aflatoxin contains aflatoxin M1 in the urine. In three urine samples of children who received aflatoxin B1 in 11.2-15.0 mg per day from peanut butter, the three samples were measured with aflatoxin M1.
What is the aflatoxin degradation machine?
The device mainly utilizes the principle of high-strength and high-efficiency ultraviolet light sterilization. The use of external light on the destructive power of bacteria and toxic cells of chromonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), so that the bacteria and toxin cells lose their viability and fecundity to eliminate germs and toxins and achieve disinfection and sterilization effects. On the one hand, ultraviolet light can mutate nucleic acids, hinder their replication, transcriptional blockade, and protein synthesis. On the other hand, the generation of free radicals can cause photoionization leading to cell death and achieve the effect of aflatoxin B1 degradation and detoxification.
The operation of the equipment is that the sesame oil with excessive aflatoxin is pumped to the fuel tank by the oil pump. When the oil level reaches the setting line, the oil pump automatically stops. The oil in the fuel tank flows to the irradiation tank with the lamp tube through the regulating valve, the sesame oil complies with the edible standard after it continuous detoxifies with the ultraviolet lamp tube.
The equipment is of function in maintaining the original flavor and clear of edible oil, fully automatic control, low-temperature degradation, adjustable degradation amount, intelligent control screen, digital information processing, and remote diagnosis.
The daily degradation volume is large with high efficiency. The use of a machine is safe, and the cost is low. It is an ideal choice for grain and oil stores, oil pressing workshops, and small and medium-sized oil plants.
It is impossible to avoid aflatoxin in food, but under the limited content of aflatoxin that rule by countries and agencies, it will not harm to humans and animals. In 2003, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization published Regulations on the Mycotoxin of Food and Feed in the world on the report. Except for the provisions of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), over 100 countries and regions around the world have established a variety of limited standards of aflatoxin in food. The limited range of aflatoxin B1 in food is no more than 20 micrograms per kilogram, and the total amount of aflatoxin (AFB1, B2, G1, G2) is limited to no more than 35 micrograms. In 2011, China published National Standards for Food Safety of Mycotoxins in Foods (GB2761-2011), which stipulates that the limit of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts and its products is no more than 20 micrograms per kilogram.
The content of aflatoxin decreases after degradation.
Experiment 1: Using aflatoxin remover tests 100 kg of sesame oil with 150 ppb of aflatoxin in the sample. After degradation, the aflatoxin was 3 ppb tested by aflatoxin B1 rapid test kit of BALLYA.
Experiment 2: Using aflatoxin remover tests 100kg of corn oil with 150 ppb of aflatoxin in the sampling. After degradation, the aflatoxin is 5 ppb tested by aflatoxin B1 rapid test kit of BALLYA.
Aflatoxin is the strongest carcinogen, causing acute and chronic aflatoxin poisoning, Aflatoxin in edible oil is prevalent and unavoidable. Under normal circumstances, it is difficult for everyone to remove aflatoxin by ordinary methods, and the removal cost is high with the complicated removal process. However, after a series of processes in the factory equipment, the aflatoxin in the edible oil was quickly and completely removed. The factory's advanced process technology guarantees the quality of the edible oil, and consumers can rest assured that they can eat with safety oils.