Recently, an article on the Internet pointed out that homemade peanut oil may cause cancer due to aflatoxin easily exceeding the standard. Especially in the warm and humid south of Guangdong, Guangxi, etc., it is very suitable for the growth and production of Aspergillus flavus. Small plants and home-made bulk peanut oil aflatoxins are more common with excessive aflatoxin. This has caused widespread concern among netizens. What is aflatoxin? How much harm does it have? The reporter interviewed relevant experts recently.
Whether it is poisoned is depends on the intake.
Liu Xiumei, a researcher at the National Food Safety Risk Assessment Center, said that aflatoxin was first discovered in 1960 and is a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. More than 12 types of aflatoxin have been isolated and identified, and aflatoxins B1 and B2, G1, G2, M1, M2, B2a, G2a, BM2a, GM2a are common. The thermal stability of aflatoxins is very good, and conventional cooking and heating methods are not easy to decompose it.
Aflatoxins are widely polluted in the world, including grains, nuts, seeds, cow's milk, especially corn and peanuts. The main reason is that food is infested with toxigenic bacteria such as Aspergillus flavus before harvest in the field, and it is propagated and produced under conditions of suitable temperature and humidity, or is not sufficiently dried and produce a large number of toxins during storage, Liu Xiumei, said. The symptoms of aflatoxin poisoning are usually the same as the poisoning of the liver such as transient fever, vomiting, anorexia, jaundice, ascites, and lower extremity edema. In severe cases, it will occur fulminant hepatic failure and death occur.
In recent years, there have been several events of human aflatoxin acute poisoning, such as mold cassava cake poisoning in Africa and mold corn poisoning in India. From 2004 to 2005, Kenya experienced a large-scale incident of aflatoxin acute poisoning in history with more than a thousand poisoned people and 125 people died. The content of aflatoxin B1 in moldy corn was as high as 4400 micrograms per kilogram.
Although aflatoxin can cause such great harm, whether it causes acute poisoning depends on the amount of intake, Wang Xingguo, a professor at Jiangnan University and deputy director of the Oil and Fat Sub-Technical Committee of the National Grain Standardization Technical Committee, stressed.
In 2003, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization published the World Food and Feed Mycotoxin Regulations Report. Except for the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), more than 100 countries and regions around the world have established a variety of limit standards of aflatoxin in food. The limited range of aflatoxin B1 in food is no more than 20 micrograms per kilogram, and the total amount of aflatoxin (AFB1, B2, G1, G2) is limited to no more than 35 micrograms.
In 2011, China's National Standards for Food Safety of Mycotoxins in Foods (GB2761-2011) stipulates that the limit of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts and peanut products is no more than 20 micrograms per kilogram. Wang Xingguo and Liu Xiumei both said that according to the standards of China and other countries in the world if the content of aflatoxin is within the safety limit, it will not pose a hazard to people health.
There are hidden dangers in Tuza and homemade oil with the title of the original.
As two types of agricultural products peanuts and corn that are easily contaminated by aflatoxins, and they are also the main source of edible oil. In recent years, with the public's pursuit of the concept of tradition, farmhouse, in self-made and pure nature and original ecology in the field of food consumption, the oil produced by mills and home-made edible oils are popular. As to these two methods of oil extraction, experts believe that there are major safety risks.
Wang Qiang, researcher and deputy director of the Agricultural Products Processing Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, pointed out that except for the possibility of contamination of the raw materials themselves, the Tuza oil or homemade oil still has the following problems. It has not been refined, with many impurities, and is easily oxidized and deteriorated. The equipment is not easy to clean, and residual oil stains and grain residues will cause mildew after oxidation. Therefore, the risk of food safety is high. Besides, the low utilization of resources will cause great waste.
According to recent media reports, some of the bulk peanut oil sold in the markets of Ganzhou and Guangdong Zhaoqing have exceeded aflatoxin. The Guangxi Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau even detected aflatoxin in a batch of imported peanut kernels with nearly 8 times the standard value.
Due to no addition in processing, the pressed peanut oil is popular among consumers. However, the safety of bulk peanut oil squeezed by these small workshops is worrying. The reporter found that bulk peanut oil produced by some small individual workshops exceeded the standard of aflatoxin B1 and the highest measured value was nearly 15 times higher than the standard.
In recently, some social organizations reported to the Nanfang Daily that with random sampling from some cities in Maoming, Yangjiang, Yunfu, Zhanjiang and Zhaoqing, the samples of peanut oil produced by some small individual workshops sent for the test in aflatoxin B1. And the result is that exceeding the standard of these peanut oils is quite common.
Although edible oil is easily contaminated by aflatoxin, there are control methods such as raw material screening, alkali refining, and adsorption that can reduce aflatoxin in finished oil to a very low level, said Wang Xingguo. However, this method of quality control is difficult to guarantee in small workshops and home-made oil.
Experts suggest that food production and processing enterprises with corn, peanuts, etc. as the main raw materials, especially the workshops produced Tuza oil, should strictly implement the national food safety standards and relevant technical specifications, pay attention to the safety of raw materials, and strictly control every production link and ensure the quality and safety of the product.