Many people have been eaten bitter seeds. This kind of melon seeds that have bitter taste is very harmful to the body and may even cause liver cancer. Do you know about that? Wang Xufeng, deputy secretary-general of the China Nutrition Alliance, pointed out that once the seeds are moldy, they may contain aflatoxin. The aflatoxin is one of the harmful substances found in chemical carcinogens. Regular intake may increase the risk of liver cancer.
In 2013, a survey by Sohu Health Channel showed that the most common quality problems encountered by netizens in buying melon seeds were about mildew, scorching, and insects. More than 80% of people had been eaten melon seeds. In choosing a brand, 36% of people will choose bulk seeds and secondly choose Qiaqiagua. Sohu Health Channel makes research in the size and quality of melon seeds in eight brands of bagged seeds, such as Qiaqia, Jinge, and Grandma. The size of Huiji melon seeds is large, while Zhang Erga’s is small. In 100/kg packaging, the quantity of Huiji melon seeds is a lot, while Zhenxin’s is few. In the content of bitter seeds (mold, sprouts, and insects), Qiaqia is the most and Zhang Erqi is followed, while Koushuiwa is little. The bitter seed rate of Qiaoxi melon seeds is close to 20%, that is to say, there is 1 bitter seed in 5 seed.
What is aflatoxin? How harm is the aflatoxin? How should we prevent it? LifeTime's reporter interviewed Luo Yunbo, dean of the College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering of China Agricultural University, and Huo Junsheng, director of the Food Science and Technology Department of the Center for Nutrition and Food Safety of China CDC, to answer them.
The toxicity of aflatoxin is 68 times that of arsenic
What kind of substance is aflatoxin? Huo Junsheng told the reporter of LifeTimes that aflatoxins are mostly derived from the mildew components in grains and nuts in nature, and aflatoxins are classified as Class 1 carcinogens by the World Health Organization's Cancer Research Institute. Aflatoxins are divided into 17 kinds, among which aflatoxin B1 is strong. Everyone should know about potassium cyanide. When watching a spy movie, the caught spy can wipe it on the lips for killing. And the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 is 10 times than that of potassium cyanide, and 68 times than that of arsenic.
Huo Junsheng said that the suitable temperature for the growth of Aspergillus flavus is 26 ° C ~ 28 ° C, and the higher the temperature will increase the growth of Aspergillus flavus. In the environment of temperature 28 ° C ~ 33 ° C and humidity 80% ~ 90%, Aspergillus can quickly secrete toxins. Therefore, this toxin is suitable for survival in the high temperature and humid in the south. Besides, the stability of aflatoxin is very strong, so it is difficult to kill it at a general temperature. That is to say, when it is sterilized by a temperature of 100 ° C for 20 hours, it is not necessary to completely remove aflatoxin.
After the poison enters the human body, it remains in the liver (5 to 15 times that of other tissues and organs), so it’s damage to the liver is also large. If people eat aflatoxin-contaminated foods, they may have aflatoxin symptoms such as fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, symptoms of poisoning in liver diseases such as liver pain, lower extremity edema, and abnormal liver function may occur. In general, if the aflatoxin in the body reaches or over 1 mg/kg, it can induce cancer. 1 mg/kg is only equivalent to the amount of aflatoxin in 1 ton of food. In 1984, aflatoxin poisoning occurred in India, killing more than a dozen children.
How to avoid aflatoxins
At present, there is no effective solution to remove aflatoxins in existing foods, and countries generally adopt methods of destroying food. Two experts called for food companies to avoid aflatoxin contamination and must ensure the quality of raw materials from the source, and relevant departments should also strengthen supervision. As to consumers, if you pay attention to prevention in your life, you can effectively avoid the damage of aflatoxin.
Luo Yunbo reminded me that you should not be lazy when you eat the mildewed nut snacks. You must get up, spit it out and rinse with water. If you suspect that the aflatoxin in corn is not removed completely, you should wash it with warm water, or cooking it in a pressure cooker that can destroy a portion of aflatoxin. If you suspect that peanut oil aflatoxin exceeds the standard, you can heat the oil to the presence of slightly smoke and add salt to stir fry. Lactating mothers should pay attention to diet, aflatoxin in breast milk is the fast route for babies.
A good prevention method is to refuse moldy food.. For example, if you find that the package is not clean and damaged in buying food, don't buy it. In particular, free-washing rice is a kind of food that can be directly cooked. In this kind of product, you should choose the one that is close to the date of production and do not buy too much at a time. In the buying of nuts, etc. should also choose small packages. After buying, you should keep it in a low temperature, a ventilated and dry place (the temperature is preferably below 20 °C, the relative humidity is below 80%), and avoid direct sunlight. Peanuts, walnuts, etc. should be stored in shells in a sealed box. Peanuts are the safest to cook, it can soak in water, rinse, and cook with water. And the fried peanuts that people usually eat, should not be fried for not too long. If you have not finished eating, you should immediately dump it.
Four types of food are most vulnerable to pollution
How do such highly toxic substances go to people's daily food? Luo Yunbo introduced that Aspergillus flavus is widely found in the soil, and it mostly prefers to grow in nuts and oily seeds, especially in nuts such as peanuts. The following four types of food usually tend to aflatoxin contamination.
The first is nuts, including peanuts, walnuts, melon seeds, pistachios, hazelnuts, pine nuts and so on. When you find that peanuts, melon seeds, hazelnuts, pine nuts, and other nuts are slightly yellow or even black, bitter, wrinkled and discolored, and look like mildew, it is likely to have been contaminated by aflatoxin and it must be discarded. If the peanuts are budded, they can't be eaten. Aflatoxin grows faster when the peanuts get wet.
The second is cereals, including corn, rice, barley, wheat, and beans. Any grain that has yellow-green mold on the surface or has shrunk, damaged, discolored or deteriorated may be contaminated with aflatoxin. It should be carefully selected and removed mildew before use.
The third is grain and oil products, including peanut oil and corn oil. If the production enterprises do not strictly pick raw materials in edible peanuts, rapeseed, corn, etc. to produce edible oil, or do not use the refining process or insufficient process control, it may cause aflatoxin to exceed the standard.
Fourth is home-made fermented food, including fermented bean curd and yellow sauce. Sauces and soy sauces produced in the food industry generally do not have aflatoxin contamination, while home-made fermented foods are easily contaminated.
Besides, aflatoxins may also enter the milk or dairy products (including cheese, milk powder, etc.) through the feed. If the cow eats the feed and food contaminated with aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B1 will be converted into aflatoxin M1 in the body and present in the milk. The ingestion of contaminated food may cause aflatoxin M1 contamination in processed milk and dairy products, but its toxicity is much smaller than that of B1.