The molecular aflatoxin B1 (abbreviated as AFB1) is a derivative of dihydrofuran, which contains a difuran ring and an Oxacillian (coumarin). Aflatoxin B1 is one of the most carcinogenic substances among known chemicals. Aflatoxin B1 is highly toxic to humans and several animals, and it’s toxic effects are mainly damaging to the liver.
Where is aflatoxin b1 found?
The food contaminated by aflatoxin B1 is mainly peanut, corn, rice, wheat, peanut butter, peanut oil, other oils and agricultural foods. The most polluted areas are the high temperature and high humidity area in the south. Aflatoxin is heat-resistant and only can be cracked at 280°C, so it is difficult to destroy it in general cooking understand the processing of normal temperatures.
Toxicity of Aflatoxin B1
The toxicity of Aflatoxin B1 is 30 times more toxic than vomiting toxin and 20 times more toxic than zearalenone. In the acute toxicity, the carcinogenic ability of aflatoxin B1 is 10 times than that of potassium cyanide and 68 times than that of arsenic. And in the chronic toxicity, the carcinogenic ability of aflatoxin B1 is 75 times than that of dimethylnitrosamine and 900 times than that of dimethyl azobenzene, which can induce cancer. Human primary liver cancer is also likely to be associated with aflatoxin.
The harm of toxicity in humanity includes liver cancer, esophageal cancer (aflatoxin) and increased susceptibility to disease.
The harm of toxicity in poultry and pigs includes feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion rate reduction, infertility, abortion, pulmonary edema, increased susceptibility to disease.
The harm of toxicity in cows includes feed intake, milk production, body weight gain, feed conversion rate reduction, reproductive performance disorder, embryo death and abortion, nervous system disorders, paralysis, lack of coordination and susceptible to disease increases.
How do you get rid of aflatoxin?
1. It should control the quality of raw materials and industrial feed. B1 and moisture of water in the raw materials and feed should be tested before entering the factory. The principle is that the content of moisture in the feed and raw materials does not exceed 13% in control. If the moisture of water exceeds the standard, it should be dried in time before storage, otherize the antifungal agent should be used. The warehouse for keeping the feed should be ventilated, cool and dry. When the room temperature is above 10°C, the stacking height should not exceed 4 meters.
2. Do not use moldy food. Sichuan is a hot and humid place, and local food is prone to mildew and deterioration. The food in mildew and deterioration cannot be used as feed for animals. Some farmers prefer to use biogas residue as a feed directly, but the residue is stacked for a long time and is prone to mildew. Special care should be taken when feeding this kind of feed to cows. If you want to use it, you should use residue produced that day. Silage, especially corn silage, is prone to secondary fermentation and produces mycotoxins after opening. Therefore, feeding the Silage to the animal should be of particular concern aflatoxin corn and other aflatoxin foods.
3. Adsorption of mycotoxins is useful. Some minerals such as activated carbon, montmorillonite, bornite, zeolite, etc. have strong adsorption and stable properties that include generally insoluble in water and not easily absorbed by animals. Adding adsorption to feed can reduce the intake of aflatoxins in livestock and poultry.
4. The enzymatic hydrolysis of mycotoxins works. The feed-grade enzyme has specific that can efficiently decompose mycotoxins of a specific type of biological enzymes, and it can decompose feed-grade enzyme in aflatoxin B1 and other enzymes.
Regulations on the standard value
The Chinese Food Hygiene Standard specifies the allowable amount of aflatoxin B1 in several major susceptible foods. The allowable amount of aflatoxin B1 in the standard value in corn, peanut, and peanut oil is ≤12μg/kg.